## FormatInt and FormatFloat specifications |
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The cFormat argument of FormatInt and FormatFloat can contain any text information along with one format specification for the number being formatted. Text not preceded by a % will be copied to the result as-is. For instance, to format currency and adding "US" in front of it you could use:

FormatFloat("US$ %.2f", 2.5)

This would result in: US$ 2.50

The format specification for the number consists of optional and required fields, with the following form:

%[flags] [width] [.precision] type

Each field of the format specification is a single character or a number signifying a particular format option (do not include spaces between them!). The simplest format specification contains only the percent sign and a type character (for example, %d). If a percent sign is followed by a character that has no meaning as a format field, the character is copied to the result. For example, to print a percent-sign character, use %%.

The optional fields, which appear before the type character, control other aspects of the formatting, as follows:

type

Required character that determines whether the associated argument is interpreted as a character, a string, or a number (see Table R.3).

flags

Optional character or characters that control justification of output and printing of signs, blanks, decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes (see Table R.4). More than one flag can appear in a format specification.

width

Optional number that specifies the minimum number of characters output. (See printf Width Specification.)

precision

Optional number that specifies the maximum number of characters printed for all or part of the output field, or the minimum number of digits printed for integer values (see Table R.5).

Type characters

IMPORTANT: Most "types" are not valid for both FormatInt and FormatFloat, e.g. don't attempt to use %d with FormatFloat, or %g for FormatInt. This can have unpredictable results!

Table R.3 printf Type Field Characters

d | : (int) Signed decimal integer. |

o | : (int) Unsigned octal integer. |

u | : (int) Unsigned decimal integer. |

x | : (int) Unsigned hexadecimal integer, using "abcdef." |

X | : (int) Unsigned hexadecimal integer, using "ABCDEF." |

e | : (float) Signed value having the form [ – ]d.dddd e [sign]ddd where d is a single decimal digit, dddd is one or more decimal digits, ddd is exactly three decimal digits, and sign is + or –. |

E | : (float) Identical to the e format except that E rather than e introduces the exponent. |

f | : (float) Signed value having the form [ – ]dddd.dddd, where dddd is one or more decimal digits. The number of digits before the decimal point depends on the magnitude of the number, and the number of digits after the decimal point depends on the requested precision. |

g | : (float) Signed value printed in f or e format, whichever is more compact for the given value and precision. The e format is used only when the exponent of the value is less than –4 or greater than or equal to the precision argument. Trailing zeros are truncated, and the decimal point appears only if one or more digits follow it. |

G | : (float) double Identical to the g format, except that E, rather than e, introduces the exponent (where appropriate). |

Flag Directives

The first optional field of the format specification is flags. A flag directive is a character that justifies output and prints signs, blanks, decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes. More than one flag directive may appear in a format specification.

Table R.4 Flag Characters

– | : Left align the result within the given field width. Right align. |

+ | : Prefix the output value with a sign (+ or –) if the output value is of a signed type. Sign appears only for negative signed values (–). |

0 | : If width is prefixed with 0, zeros are added until the minimum width is reached. If 0 and – appear, the 0 is ignored. If 0 is specified with an integer format (i, u, x, X, o, d) the 0 is ignored. No padding. |

blank (' ') | : Prefix the output value with a blank if the output value is signed and positive; the blank is ignored if both the blank and + flags appear. No blank appears. |

# | : When used with the o, x, or X format, the # flag prefixes any nonzero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X, respectively. No blank appears. |

: When used with the e, E, or f format, the # flag forces the output value to contain a decimal point in all cases. Decimal point appears only if digits follow it. |

: When used with the g or G format, the # flag forces the output value to contain a decimal point in all cases and prevents the truncation of trailing zeros. |

: Ignored when used with c, d, i, u, or s. |

Width Specification

The second optional field of the format specification is the width specification. The width argument is a non-negative decimal integer controlling the minimum number of characters printed. If the number of characters in the output value is less than the specified width, blanks are added to the left or the right of the values — depending on whether the – flag (for left alignment) is specified — until the minimum width is reached. If width is prefixed with 0, zeros are added until the minimum width is reached (not useful for left-aligned numbers).

The width specification never causes a value to be truncated. If the number of characters in the output value is greater than the specified width, or if width is not given, all characters of the value are printed (subject to the precision specification).

If the width specification is an asterisk (*), an int argument from the argument list supplies the value. The width argument must precede the value being formatted in the argument list. A nonexistent or small field width does not cause the truncation of a field; if the result of a conversion is wider than the field width, the field expands to contain the conversion result.

Precision Specification

The third optional field of the format specification is the precision specification. It specifies a non-negative decimal integer, preceded by a period (.), which specifies the number of characters to be printed, the number of decimal places, or the number of significant digits (see Table R.5). Unlike the width specification, the precision specification can cause either truncation of the output value or rounding of a floating-point value. If precision is specified as 0 and the value to be converted is 0, the result is no characters output, as shown below:

FormatInt( "%.0d", 0 ); /* No characters output */

If the precision specification is an asterisk (*), an int argument from the argument list supplies the value. The precision argument must precede the value being formatted in the argument list.

The type determines the interpretation of precision and the default when precision is omitted, as shown in Table R.5.

Table R.5 How Precision Values Affect Type

c, C | : The precision has no effect. Character is printed. |

d, i, u, o, x, X | : The precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be printed. If the number of digits in the argument is less than precision, the output value is padded on the left with zeros. The value is not truncated when the number of digits exceeds precision. Default precision is 1. |

e, E | : The precision specifies the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point. The last printed digit is rounded. Default precision is 6; if precision is 0 or the period (.) appears without a number following it, no decimal point is printed. |

f | : The precision value specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. If a decimal point appears, at least one digit appears before it. The value is rounded to the appropriate number of digits. Default precision is 6; if precision is 0, or if the period (.) appears without a number following it, no decimal point is printed. |

g, G | : The precision specifies the maximum number of significant digits printed. Six significant digits are printed, with any trailing zeros truncated. |